Named Entity Annotation

CWRC-Writer allows users to markup their document with Named Entity Annotations. In this document, we provide an overall description of it.

What are Named Entity Annotations?

From the DH Poster 2012

One of the issues flagged early on was that many CWRC partner projects wanted sophisticated annotations for names, places, titles, organization names, dates, citations, and events, as well as great freedom for personal annotations, including overlapping annotations. There is also a desire for interoperability across projects, the coordination of authority lists for these entities, and the ability to harvest some annotations.

The solution is to provide an editing tool that uses a custom in-memory javascript data structure, that can export structural markup that conforms to schemas such as the TEI and Orlando ones, along with Open Annotation Collaboration (OAC) RDF for deeper semantic annotation (using controlled authority lists and vocabulary) of references to people, places, events, organizations, bibliographic material, and dates. CWRC-Writer thus supports creation of structural XML and the RDF in a WYSIWYG environment (WYSIWYG in that the annotations are displayed in the editor as they might appear in the public interface). The formatting of the text within the editor relieves the user of the complexity of interacting directly with RDF formats and even with angle brackets, though both can be viewed on demand and edited by those comfortable with code. There is also provision for exporting enhanced text either as structural markup combined with representations of entities as (potentially overlapping) RDF or, for those who opt for hierarchical markup, entirely as nested tags.

Related Links:

  • World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Semantic Web. (n.d.). Resource Description Framework (RDF). Retrieved November 1, 2014, from
Further Reading: